Plants of
South Australia
Acacia hakeoides
Western Black Wattle,
Hakea Wattle
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Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion.
Least concern
Near threatened
Critically endangered
Data deficient
Coober Pedy
Mount Gambier
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Botanical art

Kath Alcock paintings: 15

Prior names

Racosperma hakeoides

Common names

Western Black Wattle

Hakea Wattle


Acacia from the Greek 'akakia' and derived from 'ake' or 'akis' meaning a sharp point or thorn and 'akazo' meaning to sharpen. Dioscorides, the Greek physician and botanist used the word in the 1st century AD for the Egyptian thorn tree, Acacia arabica. Hakeoides from the genus Hakea (Proteaceae) and Greek 'oides' meaning resemblance, referring to its resemblance to Hakea.

Distribution and status

Found in the Nullarbor region in near coastal areas eastward across the Eyre Peninsula into the Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Northern and Southern Lofty, Yorke Peninsula and Murray regions and also the South-Eastern region around Bordertown. Grows in open scrub, associated with Eucalyptus socialis and E. gracilis on brown calcareous soils. Also found in Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Western Australia and Queensland. Common in the other States.
Herbarium regions: Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
AVH map: SA distribution map (external link)

Plant description

Tall, bushy, glabrous, spreading shrubs to 4 m high with numerous, ascending, smooth, grey brown branchlets, slightly angular towards the apex Leaves narrow obovate- oblanceolate to 12 cm long and 12 mm wide, flat, thick, straight or slightly curved; mid-vein slightly eccentric, lateral veins conspicuous, oblique and reticulate; apex usually obtuse, with a small reddish-brown gland and a second gland on the upper margin, usually just below the middle of the leaves. Flower-spike axillary with 6-12 yellow, globular rather dense flower-heads. Flowering between July and September. Fruits are legumes linear, 7-10 cm long, 4-7 mm broad, moniliform, curved, dark brown, apex usually acute; margins thickened, light brown. Seeds are hard, black ellipsoid seed to 6 mm long and 3 mm wide with a long aril. Seed embryo type is investing.

Seed collection and propagation

Collect seeds between October and December. Collect mature pods that are turning brown, with hard, dark seeds inside. Place the pods in a tray and leave to dry for 1-2 weeks or until the pods begin to split. Then rub the dried pods to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place. This species has physical dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).

Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
2,838 (13.53 g)
2,838 (13.53 g)
Yorke Peninsula
1-Sep-2004 +5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table: