Plants of
South Australia
Acacia enterocarpa
Leguminosae
Jumping-jack Wattle
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Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion.
Least concern
Near threatened
Rare
Vulnerable
Endangered
Critically endangered
Extinct
Data deficient
Adelaide
Arkaroola
Ceduna
Coober Pedy
Hawker
Innamincka
Marla
Marree
Mount Gambier
Oodnadatta
Renmark
Wudinna
Keith
Yunta
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Botanical art

Kath Alcock paintings: 6.

Etymology

Acacia from the Greek 'akakia' and derived from 'ake' or 'akis' meaning a sharp point or thorn and 'akazo' meaning to sharpen. Dioscorides, the Greek physician and botanist used the word in the 1st century AD for the Egyptian thorn tree, Acacia arabica. Enterocarpa from the Greek 'enteron' meaning intestine and 'karpos' meaning fruit, referring to the pod being coiled like an intestine.

Distribution and status

Restricted to a number of locations in South-Eastern, Yorke Peninsula and Eyre Peninsula regions, growing in woodland to open, forest with sandy alkaline and hard neutral yellow duplex, red shallow porous loam and grey cracking and self-mulching clays soils. Also found in Victoria. Native. Very rare in South Australia. Very rare in Victoria.
Herbarium regions: Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula, South Eastern
NRM regions: Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South East
AVH map: SA distribution map (external link)

Plant description

Small, dense, much branched prickly shrubs, to 1.5 m high and usually spreading the same or more across, with reddish-brown stems. Leaves linear to 4.5 cm long and 1 mm diameter, straight or slightly curved; rigid, almost terete with apex contracting suddenly into a sharp reddish-brown, rigid point. Inflorescences simple and axillary, solitary, mostly twin or sometimes ternate with globular, bright yellow flower-heads. Flowering between May and October. Fruits are small, light brown pods covered in scattered hair to 20 mm long and 2 mm wide. Margins prominent, thickened and pale yellow. Seeds are hard, dark brown to black, ovoid to ellipsoid seed to 3 mm long and 2 mm wide. Seed embryo type is investing.

Seed collection and propagation

Collect seeds between October and December. Collect mature pods that are turning brown, with hard, dark seeds inside. Place the pods in a tray and leave to dry for 1-2 weeks or until the pods begin to split. Then rub the dried pods to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place. From seven collections, the seed viability was high, ranging from 85% to 90%. This species has physical dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).

Seeds stored:
  Hide
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
12,600 (83 g)
12,600 (83 g)
50+2-Dec-2004DJD64
South Eastern
31-Mar-200695%-18°C
BGA 
MSB
6,500 (34.2 g)
6,500 (34.2 g)
10023-Nov-2004DJD42
Yorke Peninsula
31-Mar-200690%-18°C
BGA 
MSB
14,000 (68.6 g)
14,000 (68.6 g)
100+7-Dec-2004DJD70
Eyre Peninsula
31-Mar-200685%-18°C
BGA8,800 (40.5 g)7029-Nov-2006TST107
Yorke Peninsula
1-Aug-200785%-18°C
BGA885+29-Nov-2006TST108
Yorke Peninsula
1-Aug-200790%-18°C
BGA1,950 (9.75 g)30+27-Nov-2008KHB183
Yorke Peninsula
20-Jul-200990%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.