Plants of
South Australia
Xerochrysum bracteatum
Compositae
Golden Everlasting
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Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion.
Least concern
Near threatened
Rare
Vulnerable
Endangered
Critically endangered
Extinct
Data deficient
Adelaide
Arkaroola
Ceduna
Coober Pedy
Hawker
Innamincka
Marla
Marree
Mount Gambier
Oodnadatta
Renmark
Wudinna
Keith
Yunta
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Botanical art

Kath Alcock paintings: 4.

Etymology

Xerochrysum from the Greek 'xeros' meaning dry and 'chrysos' meaning gold; referring to the golden papery flowers of the genus. Bracteatum from the Latin 'bractea' meaning a thin plate; referring to the bracts at the base of the flower.

Distribution and status

Found across most parts of South Australia except in the south-east and north-east corners, growing in open woodland or forest, usually on sandy to sandy loam soils. Also found in all the other states. Native. Common in South Australia. Common in all the other states.
Herbarium regions: North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island
NRM regions: Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
AVH map: SA distribution map (external link)

Plant description

Erect annual or perennial herb to 80 cm high. Leaves narrowly to broadly oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, to 10 cm long and 20 mm wide scabrous-pubescent like the stem, especially on the margins. Flower-heads irregular, solitary or in loose clusters, with large yellow papery daisy flowers, bracts pale yellow, intermediate bracts longest, bright-yellow or rarely white, outer ones often streaked reddish or brown. Flowering between August and November. Fruits are large yellow-brown daisy head. Seeds are small oblong to cylindrical brown seeds to 3 mm long and 1 mm wide. Seed embryo type is spatulate fully developed.

Seed collection and propagation

Collect seeds between November and March. Collect whole heads that are brown or collect seeds that are easily removed from the head. These should be hard and brown. Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. Then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Viable seeds will be dark and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place. From three collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 85% to 100%. Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily without any treatment.

Seeds stored:
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LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA12,800 (13.38 g)10024-Jan-2008DJD1047
Southern Lofty
19-Sep-2008100%-18°C
BGA800 (0.71 g)30+19-Mar-2008KHB125
Southern Lofty
19-Sep-200885%-18°C
BGA34,000 (10.85 g)50+5-Dec-2008KHB184
Murray
20-Jul-200995%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
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