Caladenia filamentosa var. bicalliata
Caladenia bicalliata, partly
Western Limestone Spider-orchid
Caladenia from the Greek 'callos' meaning beauty and 'aden' meaning a gland, referring to the colourful labellum and the glistening glands at the base of the column that are present in many of the species. Bicalliata means two calli, referring to the species having two rows of labellum calli.
Distribution and status
Found scattered in the southern part of South Australia, growing on calcareous sands or in leaf litter on limestone, chiefly along the coast. Also found in Western Australia. Native. Rare in South Australia. Rare in Western Australia.
Herbarium regions: Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern, Green Adelaide
NRM regions: Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
AVH map: SA distribution map (external link)
Small hairy terrestrial orchid to 14 cm tall in flower, with a single, very large (for the size of the plant) hairy, linear-lanceolate leaf to 6 cm long. Inflorescence on a hairy slender stem with one, or rarely 2 cream-coloured flowers with red veins; perianth-segments abruptly contracted into cylindrical coarsely glandular filaments. Dorsal sepal to 2 cm long, one-third of which is dilated. Lateral sepals less than 2 cm long, one-half of which is dilated. Petals gradually contracted into filaments. Labellum ovate to 7 mm long and 5 mm wide on a short movable claw, with the margins very shortly and bluntly serrate; lamina conspicuously red-veined; calli club-shaped, in 2 well-defined rows. Column to 8 mm long, erect then incurved, widely winged in the upper third. Anther without a point. Flowering between August and September. Fruits are brown, hairy, papery ellipsoid capsule containing numerous tiny seeds.
Seed collection and propagation
Collect seeds between September and early october. Collect fat capsules as they start to dry and turn brown. Pods will split and release the seeds quickly and will require monitoring. To increase the chances of collecting mature pods, it is recommended that a small breathable bag (ie. Organza bags) be used to enclose the developing capsules. Place the capsules in a container that will hold fine seeds and leave to dry for a few weeks or until the capsule split. Then carefully hold the capsule and tap it gently to release the seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place, refrigerator or in liquid nitrogen. Seed germination in orchid species is difficult in the absence of symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi.
Obligate re-spouter and re-seeder.
Longevity: ?? years
Time to flowering: ?? years
In 2020-2021 this species was assessed post-fire in 1 year old fire scars. Further populations will be assessed and seeds collected on Kangaroo Island in 2021–2022. Germination screening testing the response to fire cues will be undertaken in 2021. The project work is supported by John T. Reid Foundation.
|Location||No. of seeds|
|BGA||644,400 (0.23 g)||17||4-Oct-2018||DJD3754|