Plants of
South Australia
Caladenia brumalis
Winter Spider-orchid
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Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion.
Least concern
Near threatened
Critically endangered
Data deficient
Coober Pedy
Mount Gambier
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Botanical art

Kath Alcock painting: 1

Prior names

Calonemorchis brumalis

Arachnorchis brumalis

Calonema brumale

Caladenia patersonii, partly


Caladenia from the Greek 'kallos' meaning beauty and 'aden' meaning a gland, referring to the colourful labellum and the glistening glands at the base of the column that adorn many of the species. Brumalis from Latin meaning of the shortest day or wintery; referring to its late winter flowering period.

Distribution and status

Endemic to South Australia and found on the lower Eyre Peninsula and York Peninsula, with old records from the southern Mount Lofty Ranges growing on terra rosa soils or fertile sands over limestone in mallee-broombush associations, light woodland or sedge dominated grasslands. Native. Vulnerable in South Australia. Vulnerable in Australia (EPBC Act).
Herbarium regions: Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Green Adelaide
NRM regions: Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke
AVH map: SA distribution map (external link)

Plant description

Perennial herb growing from an underground tuber with a single erect, hairy, lance-shaped leaf to 80 mm long and 11 mm wide. Inflorescence solitary on a long stalk to 30 cm high, with a white to pinkish flower with darker stripes. Dorsal sepal lance-shaped near the base, wide and narrowing to a thread-like tip covered with many black glands. Lateral sepals are linear to lance-shaped and narrowing to a tip similar to that on the dorsal sepal. Petals are similar to the lateral sepals but slightly shorter and narrower. Labellum is whitish or pinkish, sometimes with red markings with erect lateral lobes, with seven to nine calli on the sides of the lobes and many short, white-tipped calli along the centre of the labellum. Flowering between August and September and is known to flower profusely after fire. Fruits are brown hairy, papery ellipsoid capsule containing numerous tiny seeds.

Seed collection and propagation

Collect seeds between October and November. Collect fat capsules as they start to dry and turn brown. Pods will split and release the seeds quickly and will require monitoring. To increase the chances of collecting mature pods, it is recommended that a small breathable bag (ie. Organza bags) be used to enclose the developing capsules. Place the capsules in a container that will hold fine seeds and leave to dry for a few weeks or until the capsule split. Then carefully hold the capsule and tap it gently to release the seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place, refrigerator or in liquid nitrogen.

Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA99,100 (0.035 g)2716-Oct-2020Stuart Moody's property
Yorke Peninsula
BGA1,451,300 (0.51 g)524-Oct-2018DJD3752
Yorke Peninsula
28-Jun-2021N/C-18°C, -80°C
BGA143,700 (0.051 g)421-Sep-2020DJD3894
Yorke Peninsula
BGA938,600 (0.335 g)30+7-Oct-2021Stuart Moody's property
Yorke Peninsula
10-Aug-2022N/C-18°C, -80°C
BGA79,000 (0.028 g)262-Nov-2022BKB88
Yorke Peninsula
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.